welding principles and applications

Welding Principles and Applications (7th Edition)

Welding Principles and Applications is a stunning handbook on the applications and principles of welding. Larry Jeffus has authored the book and dedicated it to his daughters Wendy and Amy. It explains various aspects of welding processes. The book is valuable and beneficial for anyone, especially for students. Furthermore, the book, Welding Principles and Applications, reveals the important things required for preparing any career in the welding industry. The handbook comprises extensive technical information on topics like the description of equipment and supplies; the critical fabrication and welding skills; the process descriptions, practices, and experiments and occupational opportunities in welding.

Welding Principles and Applications (7th Edition) by Larry Jeffus

Table of Contents:

Chapter 1: Introduction to Welding

  • Introduction
  • Welding Defined
  • Uses of Welding
  • Welding and Cutting Processes
  • Oxyacetylene Welding, Brazing, and Cutting
  • Thermal Cutting Processes
  • Occupational Opportunities in Welding
  • Training for Welding Occupations
  • Experiments and Practices
  • Welding Video Series
  • Metric Units

Chapter 2: Safety in Welding

  • Introduction
  • Burn Classification
  • Face, Eye, and Ear Protection
  • Respiratory Protection
  • Ventilation
  • Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs)
  • General Work Clothing
  • Special Protective Clothing
  • Handling and Storing Cylinders
  • Fire Protection
  • Equipment Maintenance
  • Work Area
  • Hand Tools
  • Electrical Safety
  • Electrical Safety Systems
  • Voltage Warnings
  • Extension Cords
  • Safety Rules for Portable Electric Tools
  • Metal Cutting Machines
  • Material Handling
  • Ladder Safety

Chapter 3: Shielded Metal Arc Equipment, Setup, and Operation

  • Introduction
  • Welding Current
  • Electrical Measurement
  • SMA Welding Arc Temperature and Heat
  • Types of Welding Power
  • Open Circuit Voltage
  • Operating Voltage
  • Arc Blow
  • Types of Power Sources
  • Generator- and Alternator-Type Welders
  • Converting AC to DC
  • Duty Cycle
  • Welder Accessories
  • Equipment Setup

Chapter 4: Shielded Metal Arc Welding of Plate

  • Introduction
  • Effect of Too High or Too Low Current Settings
  • Electrode Size and Heat
  • Arc Length
  • Electrode Angle
  • Electrode Manipulation
  • Positioning of the Welder and the Plate
  • Practice Welds
  • Stringer Beads
  • Square Butt Joint
  • Edge Weld
  • Outside Corner Joint
  • Lap Joint
  • Tee Joint

Chapter 5: Shielded Metal Arc Welding of Pipe

  • Introduction
  • Pipe and Tubing
  • Preparation and Fit-Up
  • Practice Welds
  • 1G Horizontal Rolled Position
  • 2G Vertical Fixed Position
  • 5G Horizontal Fixed Position
  • 6G 45° Inclined Position

Chapter 6 Advanced Shielded Metal Arc Welding

  • Introduction
  • Root Pass
  • Hot Pass
  • Filler Pass
  • Cover Pass
  • Plate Preparation
  • Preparing Specimens for Testing
  • Restarting a Weld Bead
  • Preheating and Post-heating
  • Poor Fit-Up

Chapter 7: Flame Cutting

  • Introduction
  • Metals Cut by the Oxyfuel Process
  • Eye Protection for Flame Cutting
  • Cutting Torches
  • Cutting Tips
  • Oxyfuel Cutting, Setup, and Operation
  • Hand Cutting
  • Layout
  • Selecting the Correct Tip and Setting the Pressure
  • The Chemistry of a Cut
  • The Physics of a Cut
  • Plate Cutting
  • Cutting Table
  • Torch Guides
  • Distortion
  • Cutting Applications
  • Pipe Cutting

Chapter 8: Plasma Arc Cutting

  • Introduction
  • Plasma
  • Plasma Torch
  • Power and Gas Cables
  • Power Requirements
  • Compressed Air
  • Heat Input
  • Distortion
  • Applications
  • Machine Cutting
  • Manual Cutting
  • Safety
  • Straight Cuts
  • Plasma Arc Gouging
  • Cutting Round Stock

Chapter 9: Related Cutting Processes

  • Introduction
  • Laser Beam Cutting (LBC) and Laser
  • Beam Drilling (LBD)
  • Lasers
  • Applications
  • Air Carbon Arc Cutting
  • Manual Torch Design
  • Application
  • Safety
  • U-Grooves
  • Oxygen Lance Cutting
  • Applications
  • Safety
  • Water Jet Cutting
  • Applications
  • Arc Cutting Electrodes
  • Applications

Chapter 10: Gas Metal Arc Welding Equipment, Setup, and Operation

  • Introduction
  • Weld Metal Transfer Methods
  • Short-Circuiting Transfer GMAW-S
  • Globular Transfer
  • Axial Spray Metal Transfer
  • Pulsed-Arc Metal Transfer
  • Pulsed-Arc Metal Transfer Current Cycle
  • Shielding Gases for Spray or Pulsed-Spray Transfer
  • Buried-Arc Transfer
  • GMAW Filler Metal Specifications
  • Wire Melting and Deposition Rates
  • Welding Power Supplies
  • Speed of the Wire Electrode
  • Power Supplies for Short-Circuiting Transfer
  • Molten Weld Pool Control
  • Power Settings
  • Weave Pattern
  • Travel Speed
  • Electrode Extension
  • Gun Angle
  • Equipment
  • Power Source
  • Electrode (Wire) Feed Unit
  • GMA Spot Welding

Chapter 11: Gas Metal Arc Welding

  • Introduction
  • Setup
  • Gas Density and Flow Rates
  • Wire-Feed Speed
  • Arc-Voltage and Amperage Characteristics
  • Electrode Extension
  • Welding Gun Angle
  • Effect of Shielding Gas on Welding
  • Practices
  • Metal Preparation
  • Flat Position, 1G and 1F Positions
  • Vertical Up 3G and 3F Positions
  • Vertical Down 3G and 3F Positions
  • Horizontal 2G and 2F Positions
  • Overhead 4G and 4F Positions
  • Globular Metal Transfer, 1G Position
  • Axial Spray

Chapter 12: Flux Cored Arc Welding Equipment, Setup, and Operation

  • Introduction
  • Principles of Operation
  • Equipment
  • Advantages
  • Limitations
  • FCAW Electrodes
  • FCA Welding Electrode Flux
  • Shielding Gas
  • Welding Techniques
  • Troubleshooting FCA Welding

Chapter 13: Flux Cored Arc Welding

  • Introduction
  • Practices
  • Flat-Position Welds
  • Square-Groove Welds
  • V-Groove and Bevel-Groove Welds
  • Fillet Welds
  • Vertical Welds
  • Horizontal Welds
  • Overhead-Position Welds
  • Thin-Gauge Welding
  • Plug Welds

Chapter 14: Other Constant-Potential Welding Processes

  • Introduction
  • Submerged Arc Welding (SAW)
  • Weld Travel
  • Electrode Feed
  • Contact Tip
  • Electrode
  • Flux
  • Advantages of SAW
  • Disadvantages of SAW
  • Arc Starting
  • Weld Backing
  • Handheld SAW
  • Experiments
  • Electroslag Welding (ESW)
  • Electrogas Welding (EGW)

Chapter 15: Gas Tungsten Arc Welding Equipment, Setup, Operation, and Filler Metals

  • Introduction
  • Tungsten
  • Types of Tungsten Electrodes
  • Shaping the Tungsten
  • GTA Welding Equipment
  • Types of Welding Current
  • Shielding Gases
  • Pre-flow and Post-flow
  • Shielding Gas Flow Rate
  • Remote Controls

Chapter 16: Gas Tungsten Arc Welding of Plate

  • Introduction
  • Torch Angle
  • Filler Rod Manipulation
  • Tungsten Contamination
  • Current Setting
  • Experiments
  • Gas Flow
  • Practice Welds

Chapter 17: Gas Tungsten Arc Welding of Pipe

  • Introduction
  • Practices
  • Joint Preparation
  • Root
  • Backing Gas
  • Filler Metal
  • Cup Walking
  • Practice Welds
  • Hot Pass
  • Filler Pass
  • Cover Pass

Chapter 18: Shop Math and Weld Cost

  • Introduction
  • Shop Math
  • Types of Numbers
  • General Math Rules
  • Equations and Formulas
  • Mixed Units
  • Adding and Subtracting Mixed Units
  • Fractions
  • Finding the Fraction’s Common Denominator
  • Reducing Fractions
  • Multiplying and Dividing Fractions
  • Converting Numbers
  • Converting Fractions to Decimals
  • Converting Decimals to Fractions
  • Conversion Charts
  • Measuring
  • Welding Costs
  • Cost Estimation
  • Joint Design
  • Weld Metal Cost
  • Cost of Electrodes, Wires, Gases, and Flux
  • Deposition Efficiency
  • Deposition Rate
  • Deposition Data Tables
  • Operating Factor
  • Other Useful Formulas

Chapter 19: Reading Technical Drawings

  • Introduction
  • Mechanical Drawings
  • Lines
  • Types of Drawings
  • Special Views
  • Dimensioning
  • Drawing Scale
  • Reading Mechanical Drawings
  • Sketching
  • Erasers and Erasing
  • Graph Paper
  • Computers and Drawings

Chapter 20: Welding Joint Design and Welding Symbols

  • Introduction
  • Weld Joint Design
  • Welding Process
  • Edge Preparation
  • Joint Dimensions
  • Metal Thickness
  • Metal Type
  • Welding Position
  • Code or Standards Requirements
  • Welder Skill
  • Acceptable Cost
  • Welding Symbols
  • Indicating Types of Welds
  • Weld Location
  • Location Significance of Arrow
  • Fillet Welds
  • Plug Welds
  • Spot Welds
  • Seam Welds
  • Groove Welds
  • Backing
  • Flanged Welds
  • Nondestructive Testing Symbols

Chapter 21: Fabricating Techniques and Practices

  • Introduction
  • Fabrication
  • Safety
  • Parts and Pieces
  • Layout
  • Nesting
  • Kerf Space
  • Material Shapes
  • Bill of Materials Form
  • Overall Tolerance
  • Assembly
  • Assembly Tools
  • Fitting
  • Tack Welds
  • Welding
  • Finishing

Chapter 22: Welding Codes and Standards

  • Introduction
  • Codes, Standards, Procedures, and Specifications
  • Welding Procedure Qualification
  • Welding Procedure Specification (WPS)
  • Qualifying the Welding Procedure Specification
  • Qualifying and Certifying
  • General Information

Chapter 23: Testing and Inspection of Welds

  • Introduction
  • Quality Control (QC)
  • Discontinuities and Defects
  • Porosity
  • Inclusions
  • Inadequate Joint Penetration
  • Incomplete Fusion
  • Arc Strikes
  • Overlap
  • Undercut
  • Crater Cracks
  • Underfill
  • Plate-Generated Problems
  • Lamination
  • Delamination
  • Lamellar Tears
  • Destructive Testing (DT)
  • Tensile Testing
  • Fatigue Testing
  • Shearing Strength of Welds
  • Welded Butt Joints
  • Fillet Weld Break Test
  • Testing by Etching
  • Impact Testing
  • Nondestructive Testing (NDT)
  • Visual Inspection (VT)
  • Penetrant Inspection (PT)
  • Magnetic Particle Inspection (MT)
  • Radiographic Inspection (RT)
  • Ultrasonic Inspection (UT)
  • Leak Checking
  • Eddy Current Inspection (ET)
  • Hardness Testing

Chapter 24: Welder Certification

  • Introduction
  • Qualified and Certified Welders
  • Welder Performance Qualification
  • Welder Certification
  • AWS Entry-Level Welder Qualification and Welder Certification

Chapter 25: Welding Metallurgy

  • Introduction
  • Heat, Temperature, and Energy
  • Heat
  • Temperature
  • Mechanical Properties of Metal
  • Hardness
  • Brittleness
  • Ductility
  • Toughness
  • Strength
  • Other Mechanical Concepts
  • Structure of Matter
  • Crystalline Structures of Metal
  • Phase Diagrams
  • Lead-Tin Phase Diagram
  • Iron-Carbon Phase Diagram
  • Strengthening Mechanisms
  • Solid-Solution Hardening
  • Precipitation Hardening
  • Mechanical Mixtures of Phases
  • Quench, Temper, and Anneal
  • Martensitic Reactions
  • Cold Work
  • Grain Size Control
  • Heat Treatments Associated with Welding
  • Preheat
  • Stress Relief, Process Annealing
  • Annealing
  • Normalizing
  • Thermal Effects Caused by Arc Welding
  • Gases in Welding
  • Hydrogen
  • Nitrogen
  • Oxygen
  • Carbon Dioxide
  • Metallurgical Defects
  • Cold Cracking
  • Hot Cracking
  • Carbide Precipitation

Chapter 26: Weldability of Metals

  • Introduction
  • Steel Classification and Identification
  • SAE and AISI Classification Systems
  • Unified Numbering System (UNS)
  • Carbon and Alloy Steels
  • Low Carbon Also Called Mild Steel
  • Medium Carbon Steel
  • High Carbon Steel
  • Tool Steel
  • High Manganese Steel
  • Low Alloy, High Tensile Strength Steels
  • Stainless Steels
  • Chromium-Molybdenum Steel
  • Cast Iron
  • Practice Welding Cast Iron
  • Nonferrous Metals
  • Copper and Copper Alloys
  • Aluminum Weldability
  • Titanium
  • Magnesium
  • Repair Welding

Chapter 27: Filler Metal Selection

  • Introduction
  • Manufacturers’ Electrode Information
  • Understanding the Electrode Data
  • Data Resulting from Mechanical Tests
  • Data Resulting from Chemical Analysis
  • Carbon Equivalent (CE)
  • SMAW Operating Information
  • Core Wire
  • Functions of the Flux Covering
  • Filler Metal Selection
  • Shielded Metal Arc Welding Electrode Selection
  • AWS Filler Metal Classifications
  • Carbon Steel
  • Carbon and Low Alloy Steel–Covered
  • Electrodes
  • Wire-Type Steel Filler Metals
  • Solid Wire
  • Tubular Wire
  • Stainless Steel Electrodes
  • Nonferrous Electrodes
  • Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys
  • Aluminum-Covered Arc Welding Electrodes
  • Aluminum Bare Welding Rods and Electrodes
  • Special-purpose Filler Metals
  • Surface and Buildup Electrode Classification
  • Magnesium Alloys
  • Hydrogen Embrittlement

Chapter 28: Welding Automation and Robotics

  • Introduction
  • Manual Joining Process
  • Semiautomatic Joining Processes
  • Machine Joining Processes
  • Automatic Joining Processes
  • Automated Joining
  • Industrial Robots
  • Robot Programming
  • System Planning
  • Future Automation

Chapter 29: Other Welding Processes

  • Introduction
  • Resistance Welding (RW)
  • Resistance Spot Welding (RSW)
  • Seam Welding (RSEW)
  • High-Frequency Resistance Seam Welding (RSEW-HF)
  • Resistance Projection Welding (RPW)
  • Flash Welding (FW)
  • Upset Welding (UW)
  • Percussion Welding (PEW)
  • Electron Beam Welding (EBW)
  • Electron Beam Welding Gun
  • Electron Beam Seam Tracking
  • Ultrasonic Welding (USW)
  • Ultrasonic Welding Applications
  • Inertia Welding Process
  • Inertia Weld Bond Characteristics
  • Advantages of the Process
  • Laser Beam Welding (LBW)
  • Laser Welding Advantages and Disadvantages
  • Laser Beam
  • Plasma Arc Welding (PAW) Process
  • Stud Welding (SW)
  • Thermal Spraying (THSP)
  • Thermal Spraying Equipment
  • Thermospray (Powder) Process
  • Plasma Spraying Process
  • Cold Welding (CW)
  • Thermite Welding (TW)
  • Hardfacing
  • Selection of Hardfacing Metals
  • Hardfacing Welding Processes
  • Quality of Surfacing Deposit
  • Hardfacing Electrodes
  • Shielded Metal Arc Method
  • Hardfacing with Gas Shielded Arc
  • Carbon Arc Method

Chapter 30: Oxyfuel Welding and Cutting Equipment, Setup, and Operation

  • Introduction
  • Pressure Regulators
  • Regulator Operation
  • Regulator Gauges
  • Regulator Safety Pressure Release Device
  • Cylinder and Regulator Fittings
  • Regulator Safety Precautions
  • Regulator Care and Use
  • Welding and Cutting Torches: Design and Service
  • Mixing the Gases
  • Torch Care and Use
  • Welding and Heating Torch Tips
  • Torch Tip Care and Use
  • Backfires
  • Flashbacks
  • Reverse Flow and Flashback Valves
  • Care of the Reverse Flow Valve and Flashback Arrestor
  • Hoses and Fittings
  • Hose Care and Use
  • Types of Flames
  • Leak Detection
  • Manifold Systems
  • Manifold Operation

Chapter 31: Oxyfuel Gases and Filler Metals

  • Introduction
  • Oxyfuel Flame
  • Characteristics of the Fuel-Gas Flame
  • Fuel Gases
  • Flame Rate of Burning
  • Acetylene (C2H2)
  • Liquefied Fuel Gases
  • Methylacetylene-Propadiene (MPS)
  • MAPP
  • Propane and Natural Gas
  • Hydrogen
  • Filler Metals
  • Ferrous Metals
  • Mild Steel
  • Cast Iron

Chapter 32: Oxyacetylene Welding

  • Introduction
  • Mild Steel Welds
  • Factors Affecting the Weld
  • Characteristics of the Weld
  • Flat Position Welding
  • Outside Corner Joint
  • Butt Joint
  • Lap Joint
  • Tee Joint
  • Out-of-Position Welding
  • Vertical Welds
  • Butt Joint
  • Lap Joint
  • Tee Joint
  • Horizontal Welds
  • Horizontal Stringer Bead
  • Butt Joint
  • Lap Joint
  • Tee Joint
  • Overhead Welds
  • Stringer Bead
  • Mild Steel Pipe and Tubing
  • Horizontal Rolled Position 1G
  • Horizontal Fixed Position 5G
  • Vertical Fixed Position 2G
  • 45° Fixed Position 6G
  • Thin-Wall Tubing

Chapter 33: Soldering, Brazing, and Braze Welding

  • Introduction
  • Advantages of Soldering and Brazing
  • Physical Properties of the Joint
  • Shear Strength
  • Ductility
  • Fatigue Resistance
  • Corrosion Resistance
  • Fluxes
  • Flux
  • Fluxing Action
  • Soldering and Brazing Methods
  • Method Grouping
  • Torch Soldering and Brazing
  • Furnace Soldering and Brazing
  • Induction Soldering and Brazing
  • Dip Soldering and Brazing
  • Resistance Soldering and Brazing
  • Special Methods
  • Filler Metals
  • Types of Filler Metals
  • Soldering Alloys
  • Brazing Alloys
  • Joint Design
  • Joint Spacing
  • Brazing Practices
  • Surface Buildup and Hole Fill Practices
  • Silver Brazing Pracitces
  • Soldering Practices

Thus, Welding Principles and Applications is a unique book on the applications and principles of welding.

Related: Other Important Welding Handbooks

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