AWS D1.1:2020: Structural Welding Code – Steel

AWS D1.1/D1.1M Structural Welding Code – Steel is the most widely used welding code in the United States and the world. The Code is specified as the quality standard in hundreds of contract documents every year. It contains much more than just details on the qualification process. The main purpose of the code is to assure quality and consequently, the quality of the products will increase. Further, as the quality increases and rework decreases.

Post Highlights:

  • AWS D1.1: 2020 (24th Edition)
  • AWS D1.1/D1.1M: 2020 Contents
  • AWS D1.1: 2020 Changes/Modifications
  • CWI and AWS D1.1 Codes

AWS D1.1: 2020 (24th Edition)

AWS D1.1 – 24th Edition contains the requirements for fabricating and erecting welded steel structures. Further, this Code reveals a comprehensive approach to outlining specific connections and welds. They include fillet welds, groove welds, plugs, and slot welds. It also explains numerous other considerations namely fatigue stress design parameters and prequalified welding procedure specifications.

In addition, the AWS D1.1:2020 code includes information pertinent to its stipulation in contract documents as well. It provides provisions specific to the responsibilities of the inspectors, contractors, and engineers.

AWS D1.1/D1.1M: 2020 Contents

1. General Requirements

  • Scope
  • Standard Units of Measurement
  • Safety Precautions
  • Limitations
  • Responsibilities
  • Approval
  • Mandatory and Nonmandatory Provisions
  • Welding Symbols

2. Normative References

3. Terms and Definitions

4. Design of Welded Connections

  • Scope

Part A – Common Requirements for Design of Welded Connections (Non-tubular and Tubular Members)

  • General
  • Contract Plans and Specifications
  • Effective Areas

Part B – Specific Requirements for Design of Nontubular Connections (Statically or Cyclically Loaded)

  • General
  • Stresses
  • Joint Configuration and Details
  • Joint Configuration and Details – Groove Welds
  • Joint Configuration and Details – Fillet Welded Joints
  • Joint Configuration and Details – Plug and Slot Welds
  • Filler Plates
  • Built-up Members

Part C – Specific Requirements for Design of Nontubular Connections (Cyclically Loaded)

  • General
  • Limitations
  • Calculation of Stresses
  • Allowable Stresses and Stress Ranges
  • Detailing, Fabrication, and Erection
  • Prohibited Joints and Welds
  • Inspection

5. Prequalification of WPSs

  • Scope

Part A – WPS Development

  • General WPS Requirements

Part B – Base Metal

  • Base Metal

Part C – Weld Joints

Part D – Welding Processes

Part E – Filler Metals and Shielding Gases

  • Filler Metal and Shielding Gas

Part F – Preheat and Interpass Temperature Requirements

  • Preheat and Interpass Temperature Requirements

Part G – WPS Requirements

  • WPS requirements

Part H – Postweld Heat Treatment

  • Post-weld Heat Treatment

6. Qualification

  • Scope

Part A – General Requirements

  • General
  • Common Requirements for WPS and Welding Personnel Performance Qualification

Part B – Welding Procedure Specification (WPS) Qualification

  • Production Welding Positions Qualified
  • Type of Qualification Tests
  • Weld Types for WPS Qualification
  • Preparation of WPS
  • Essential Variables
  • WPS Requirements for Production Welding Using Existing Non-Waveform or Waveform WPSs
  • Methods of Testing and Acceptance Criteria for WPS Qualification
  • CJP Groove Welds
  • PJP Groove Welds
  • Fillet Welds
  • Plug and Slot Welds
  • Welding Processes Requiring Qualification

Part C – Performance Qualification

  • General
  • Type of Qualification Tests Required
  • Weld Types for Welder and Welding Operator Performance Qualification
  • Preparation of Performance Qualification Forms
  • Essential Variables
  • CJP Groove Welds for Nontubular Connections
  • Extent of Qualification
  • Methods of Testing and Acceptance Criteria for Welder and Welding Operator Qualification
  • Method of Testing and Acceptance Criteria for Tack Welder Qualification
  • Retest

Part D – Requirements for CVN Toughness Testing

  • General: CVN Testing
  • CVN Tests
  • Combining FCAW-S with Other Welding Processes in a Single Joint
  • Reporting

7. Fabrication

  • Scope
  • Base Metal
  • Welding Consumables and Electrode Requirements
  • ESW and EGW Processes
  • WPS Variables
  • Preheat and Interpass Temperatures
  • Heat Input Control for Quenched and Tempered Steels
  • Stress-Relief Heat Treatment
  • Backing
  • Welding and Cutting Equipment
  • Welding Environment
  • Conformance with Design
  • Minimum Fillet Weld Sizes
  • Preparation of Base Metal
  • Reentrant Corners
  • Weld Access Holes, Beam Copes, and Connection Material
  • Tack Welds and Construction Aid Welds
  • Camber in Built-up Members
  • Splices
  • Control of Distortion and Shrinkage
  • Tolerance of Joint Dimensions
  • Dimensional Tolerance of Welded Structural Members
  • Weld Profiles
  • Technique for Plug and Slot Welds
  • Repairs
  • Peening
  • Caulking
  • Arc Strikes
  • Weld Cleaning
  • Weld Tabs

8. Inspection

Part A – General Requirements

  • Scope
  • Inspection of Materials and Equipment
  • Inspection of WPSs
  • Inspection of Welder, Welding Operator, and Tack Welder Qualifications
  • Inspection of Work and Records

Part B – Contractor Responsibilities

  • Obligations of the Contractor

Part C – Acceptance Criteria

  • Scope
  • Engineer’s Approval for Alternate Acceptance Criteria
  • Visual Inspection
  • Penetrant Testing (PT) and Magnetic Particle Testing (MT)
  • Nondestructive Testing (NDT)
  • Radiographic Testing (RT)
  • Ultrasonic Testing (UT)

Part D – NDT Procedures

  • Procedures
  • Extent of Testing

Part E – Radiographic Testing (RT)

  • RT of Groove Welds in Butt Joints
  • RT Procedures
  • Examination, Report, and Disposition of Radiographs

Part F – Ultrasonic Testing (UT) of Groove Welds

  • General
  • Qualification Requirements
  • UT Equipment
  • Reference Standards
  • Equipment Qualification
  • Calibration for Testing
  • Testing Procedures
  • Preparation and Disposition of Reports
  • Calibration of the UT Unit with IIW Type or Other Approved Reference Blocks (Annex G)
  • Equipment Qualification Procedures
  • Discontinuity Size Evaluation Procedures
  • Scanning Patterns
  • Examples of dB Accuracy Certification

Part G – Other Examination Methods

  • General Requirements
  • Radiation Imaging Systems
  • Advanced Ultrasonic Systems
  • Additional Requirements

9. Stud Welding

  • Scope
  • General Requirements
  • Mechanical Requirements
  • Workmanship/Fabrication
  • Technique
  • Stud Application Qualification Requirements
  • Production Control
  • Fabrication and Verification Inspection Requirements
  • Manufacturers’ Stud Base Qualification Requirements

10. Tubular Structures

  • Scope

Part A – Design of Tubular Connections

  • Design Criteria
  • Identification and Parts of Tubular Connections
  • Symbols
  • Weld Design
  • Thickness Transition
  • Material Limitations

Part B – Prequalification of Welding Procedure Specifications (WPSs)

  • Fillet Weld Requirements
  • PJP Requirements
  • CJP Groove Weld Requirements

Part C – Welding Procedure Specification (WPS) Qualification

  • Common Requirements for WPS and Welding Personnel Performance Qualification
  • Production Welding Positions Qualified
  • Type of Qualification Tests, Methods of Testing, and Acceptance Criteria for WPS Qualification
  • CJP Groove Welds for Tubular Connections
  • PJP and Fillet Welds Tubular T-, Y-, or K-Connections and Butt Joints

Part D – Performance Qualification

  • Production Welding Positions, Thicknesses, and Diameters Qualified
  • Weld Types for Welder and Welding Operator Performance Qualification
  • CJP Groove Welds for Tubular Connections
  • PJP Groove Welds for Tubular Connections
  • Fillet Welds for Tubular Connections
  • Methods of Testing and Acceptance Criteria for Welder and Welding Operator Qualification

Part E – Fabrication

  • Backing
  • Tolerance of Joint Dimensions

Part F – Inspection

  • Visual Inspection
  • NDT
  • UT
  • RT Procedures
  • Supplementary RT Requirements for Tubular Connections
  • UT of Tubular T-, Y-, and K-Connections

11. Strengthening and Repair of Existing Structures

  • Scope
  • General
  • Base Metal
  • Design for Strengthening and Repair
  • Fatigue Life Enhancement
  • Workmanship and Technique
  • Quality

Changes/Modifications to AWS D1.1-2020 Clauses

The American Welding Society revised AWS D1.1:2015 and published AWS D1.1:2020 based on a five-year revision cycle. This is 24th Edition and underwent the following changes:

Modifications/Changes to Clauses-

Clause 1 – No comment

Clause 2

This is a new clause listing normative references. It replaces subclause 1.9 and Annex S from the previous edition.

Clause 3

This is a new clause that provides terms and definitions specific to this standard. It replaces subclause 1.3 and Annex J from the previous edition.

Clause 4

Clause 4 was presented as Clause 2 in the previous edition. Annex A Figures in the previous edition were incorporated into Clause 4.

Clause 5

Clause 5 was presented as Clause 3 in the previous edition. The Clause has also been restructured to follow the normal progression of writing a prequalified WPS. Table 5.2 has been editorially renamed and reorganized to list WPS essential variables. Additional requirements have been added when using shielding gases and a new Table 5.7 was added to shielding gases. New materials have been added to Tables 5.3 and 5.8.

Clause 6

Clause 6 was presented as Clause 4 in the previous edition. Revisions include the requirements for the qualification of WPSs using waveform technology. All the CVN testing requirements have been added to Table 6.7, so they now are all contained in a single place. The WPS retest requirements have been clarified. The PJP Groove weld clause has been reorganized to clarify the qualification of PJP Groove welds using the Joint Details in Figure 5.2. Part D of the Clause has been reorganized to better align the testing procedures and qualification of CVNs with the order that they would be accomplished.

Clause 7

Clause 7 was presented as Clause 5 in the previous edition. Revisions were made to the weld restoration of base metal with mislocated holes.

Clause 8

Clause 8 was presented as Clause 6 in the previous edition. Revisions were made to the qualification requirements for inspection personnel to ensure that all welding inspectors are qualified. The Engineer’s responsibilities as it relates to Inspection were also clarified. Digital radiography has been added to Radiographic Testing. The limitations for geometric un-sharpness have been added to the Code and the equation has been revised to match the equation in ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section V, Article 2. The methodology to determine the attenuation factor has been updated to reflect that UT instruments are now capable of reporting a fractional value for dB.

Clause 9

Clause 9 was presented as Clause 7 in the previous edition. The code was updated to require the manufacturer’s permanent identification on headed studs and deformed anchor bars. Revisions were made to provide weld procedure requirements for fillet welding of studs.

Clause 10

Clause 10 was presented as Clause 9 in the previous edition. The calculations for static strength of welded tubular connections were removed in deference to AISC design provisions.

Clause 11

Clause 11 was presented as Clause 8 in the previous edition.

CWI and AWS D1.1 Codes

To become a Certified Welding Inspector (CWI), candidates do not need to be an expert on a specific code. They simply need to know how to find information on the codebooks as the exam is open-book. The CWI exam tests your ability to use a code with which unfamiliar. CWI certification allows candidates to perform their duties as a CWI according to any welding code.

Knowing the AWS D1.1 code can help to answer any questions that may arise during the inspection, fabrication, and qualification of welding procedures and welders.

Thus, the above-given information on AWS D1.1 is crucial and important for various professionals working in the welding industry.

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Related: AWS Standards/Codes

1 thought on “AWS D1.1:2020: Structural Welding Code – Steel”

  1. Thanks for explaining the different kinds of metals that are typically used for welding. I’d like to know more about structural steel welding services soon because I’m thinking about getting an office building constructed soon. I will need to start preparing for that as early as now.

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