Different Types of Welding Joints

types of welding joints

Welding is one of the strongest things human beings ever discovered since their existence. The application of welding is limitless in various forms on earth, in space, and in water. Welding can join different metals together at different angles. Normally, the welding industry employs five types of welding joints in day-to-day activities.

Post Highlights:

  • What is Welding Joint?
  • Types of Welding Joints
    i) Butt Welding Joint
    ii) Corner Welding Joint
    iii) Lap Welding Joint
    iv) Tee Welding Joint
    v) Edge Welding Joint
    vi) Fillet Welding Joint

What is Welding Joint?

A welding joint is an edge or point of two or more pieces of metal. Some more welding joint is a place where weld metal fully penetrates the joint with complete root fusion. The American Welding Society explains five types of welding joints i.e. tee, edge, butt, lap, and corner.

Types of Welding Joints

There are normally five types and they are as follows.

1. Butt Welding Joint

types of welding jointsA butt welding joint or square groove weld is a very simple and common type of welding joint. It is performed on two flat side by side parallel pieces of metal. The ends or edges of the two parts make an angle of 135-180° to one another. Normally, this joint type is affordable and used for joining pipe to pipe, flanges, fittings, valves, and other equipment.

Welding Styles for Butt Joint

The butt joint uses the following preparation styles.

  • Bevel-Groove Butt Weld
  • Flare-Bevel-Groove Butt Weld
  • Flare-V-Groove Butt Weld
  • J-Groove Butt Weld
  • Square-Groove Butt Weld
  • U-Groove Butt Weld
  • V-Groove Butt Weld

2. Corner Welding Joint

corner jointIn the corner welding joint, the two metals make right angles or form L-shape. The angle ranges from 30° to 130°. It is most popular in the sheet metal industry. The corner welding joint is commonly used for making boxes, box frames, and other fabrications.

Welding Style for Corner Joint

The styles employed are as follows.

  • Bevel-Groove Weld
  • Corner-Flange Weld
  • Edge Weld
  • Fillet Weld
  • Flare-V-Groove Weld
  • J-Groove Weld
  • Spot-Weld
  • Square-Groove Weld or Butt Weld
  • U-Groove Weld
  • V-Groove Weld

3. Lap Welding Joint

lap jointA lap welding joint is performed by placing two pieces of metal in an overlapping pattern on top of each other. And the overlapping parts make an angle of 0-5° to one another. The main use of the lap weld joint is for two metals with different thicknesses. It also seems like a fillet welding joint type in some way.

Welding Style for Lap Joint

  • Bevel-Groove Weld
  • Flare-Bevel-Groove Weld
  • J-Groove Weld
  • Plug Weld
  • Slot Weld
  • Spot-Weld

4. Tee Welding Joint

tee jointA tee welding joint is formed when two metals or shapes are intersecting at a 90° angle. Further, it places one edge of metal at the center of another one. While doing so, extra care is required especially to the edges of metals for effective penetration. It is also considered a fillet welding joint.

Welding Style for Tee Joint

  • Bevel-Groove Weld
  • Fillet Weld
  • Flare-Bevel-Groove Weld
  • J-Groove Weld
  • Melt-Through Weld
  • Plug Weld
  • Slot Weld

5. Edge Welding Joint

types of welding jointsAn edge welding joint is normally applied to the parts of a sheet metal that has flanging edges or for joining adjacent pieces of metal. While joining them, metal pieces are placed side by side on the same edge. In case the gap is bigger, then filler metal is used for covering the same.

Welding Style for Edge Joint

Joint creation takes place using the following styles.

  • Bevel-Groove Weld
  • Corner-Flange Weld
  • Edge-Flange Weld
  • J-Groove Weld
  • Square-Groove Weld or Butt Weld
  • U-Groove Weld
  • V-Groove Weld

6. Fillet Welding Joint

The fillet welding joint is another term for the lap, corner, and tee joint types. In Arc Welding, fillet welding joints account for almost 75% of all joints. There is no need to prepare edges for this joint type. Consequently, the piping system uses it widely to attach pipes with socket joints.

Welding Style for Fillet Joint

The joint is prepared in the following ways.

  • Casting
  • Filing
  • Forging
  • Grinding
  • Machining
  • Oxyacetylene Cutting (thermal cutting process)
  • Plasma Arc Cutting (thermal cutting process)
  • Routing
  • Shearing
  • Stamping

Thus, the above-mentioned information on different types of welding joints and the welding style used for creating the joint is crucial for students and welders. They must understand the basics of joint creation while using welding types.

Related: Other Welding Types

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