Aerospace Welding Techniques

aerospace welding techniques

Aerospace Welding Techniques are some sort of necessary parameters to follow in aerospace welding. They include automated welding, joint design, non-destructive testing, post-weld heat treatment, precision welding, pulse welding, tack welding, and welding in controlled environments. Aerospace welding is a specialized field of welding that focuses on the fabrication and assembly of components used in aerospace applications. Aerospace welding work demands structural integrity, high precision, and reliability. It uses lightweight yet strong metal materials such as titanium, aluminum, and certain high-strength alloys. In this article, we will discuss various aspects of aerospace welding and future trends.

Post Highlights:

  • What is Aerospace Welding?
  • Aerospace Welding Materials
  • Aerospace Welding Requirements
  • Aerospace Welding Equipment
  • Aerospace Welding Processes
  • Aerospace Welding Techniques
  • Aerospace Aluminum Welding
  • Aerospace Welding Codes
  • Aerospace Welding Standard AWS D17.1
  • Aerospace Welding Courses
  • Aerospace Welding School
  • Aerospace Welding Test
  • Aerospace Welding Certification
  • Aerospace Welder Union
  • Aerospace Welding Companies
  • Aerospace Welding Jobs
  • Aerospace Welding Salary
  • How to Get into Aerospace Welding
  • Aerospace Welding Challenges and Solutions
  • Future Trends in Aerospace Welding

What is Aerospace Welding?

Aerospace welding is a specialized area of welding in the aviation manufacturing field. The welding focuses on the fabrication and assembly of components used in aerospace applications. The field involves the joining of various metallic materials to create structures and components for aircraft and spacecraft. The aerospace industry demands structural integrity, high precision, and reliability in the fabrication of components, making welding a critical process.

Aerospace Welding Materials

Some common materials used in aerospace welding include-

1. Aluminum Alloys – Aluminum is a widely used material in aerospace applications. Because this metal has a lightweight nature and a good strength-to-weight ratio. Aluminum alloys, such as 2024 and 7075, are commonly used for aircraft structures including fuselages and wings.

2. Nickel Alloys – The alloys (Inconel) are used in aerospace applications where high-temperature resistance and corrosion resistance are crucial. These alloys are commonly used in components like exhaust systems and turbine blades.

3. Titanium Alloys – They offer corrosion resistance, a high strength-to-weight ratio, and the ability to withstand high temperatures. These alloys are often used in critical components like aircraft engine parts and structural components.

4. Stainless Steel – Aerospace welding uses some certain grades of stainless steel for corrosion resistance and strength. The components such as exhaust systems and structural elements commonly employ stainless steel.

5. High-Strength Alloys – The alloys (superalloys) are used in aerospace welding for components subjected to extreme conditions. These alloys are often used in critical engine components and structural elements.

6. Superalloys – The specialized alloys are designed to withstand high temperatures and extreme conditions. Superalloys, based on nickel, are employed in components like turbine blades in aircraft engines.

7. Composite Materials – Materials such as carbon-fiber-reinforced polymers (CFRP) and fiberglass composites are extensively used in aerospace structures. Welding is not used for these materials in the traditional sense. But bonding and joining techniques specific to composites are employed.

Aerospace Welding Requirements

The authorities such as the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) in the United States or the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) in Europe may establish specific requirements.

Some key aerospace welding requirements include-

1. Certification/Qualification – Welding personnel seeking to work in aerospace applications often need to be certified/qualified to perform specific welding tasks. This ensures that individuals have the necessary skills to meet the high required standards in the aerospace industry.

2. Documentation – Aerospace welding requires comprehensive documentation. This includes detailed welding qualification records (WQR), welding procedure specifications (WPS), and other relevant documentation. They provide evidence of compliance with standards and regulations.

3. Environmental Consideration – The factors include pressure differentials, temperature extremes, and exposure to corrosive substances. They are crucial in aerospace welding as the components will face during the operations.

4. Material Selection – Materials must have the necessary durability, strength, and resistance to factors such as temperature variations and corrosion. The common materials include aluminum titanium alloys, nickel alloys, stainless steel, alloys, and high-strength alloys.

5. Quality Control – Aerospace welding requires rigorous quality control measures to ensure specific weld standards. The NDT methods such as ultrasonic testing, x-ray inspection, and magnetic particle testing are commonly used to detect defects.

6. Traceability – Aerospace components must be traceable to their source. There should be a clear record of the welding processes used, the personnel involved, and the inspection results. Therefore, traceability of materials and processes is essential.

7. Welding Processes – Select the appropriate welding process for the materials and components being joined. Some common aerospace welding techniques include Tig, Mig, resistance spot welding, and laser welding. The chosen process should provide high precision and reliable welds.

8. Welding Standards/Codes – Compliance with industry standards is essential in aerospace welding. Organizations such as the American Welding Society (AWS) and international standards bodies provide guidelines for aerospace welding processes and procedures.

9. Safety – Welding procedures must consider the safety of personnel and welds. The work must be reliable to ensure the overall safety of the aircraft or spacecraft. Therefore, safety is considered a top priority in aerospace welding.

Aerospace Welding Equipment

Some common equipment used in aerospace welding include-

1. Welding Machines

TIG Welding Machines – TIG welding is commonly used in aerospace for its precision. TIG welding machines use a non-consumable tungsten electrode to create an arc for welding.

MIG Welding Machines – MIG welding is suitable for welding thicker materials. MIG welding machines use a consumable wire electrode. And, a shielding gas to protect the weld from atmospheric contamination.

2. Power Sources

High-Frequency Power Sources – TIG welding uses high-frequency power sources. This initiates and maintains the arc between the tungsten electrode and the workpiece.

3. Welding Torches/Guns

TIG Welding Torch – These torches are designed for precise control of the welding process. They include a non-consumable tungsten electrode and a gas nozzle for shielding.

MIG Welding Gun – These guns feed the consumable wire electrode and provide the shielding gas. They are suitable for both automated and manual welding processes.

4. Welding Positioners/Fixtures

Welding Positioners – These devices rotate or tilt the workpiece to achieve optimal welding positions. And, improve access and weld quality.

Fixtures – They are used to hold and position components during welding. They ensure accuracy and repeatability.

5. NDT Equipment

X-ray Machines – It is commonly used in aerospace to detect internal defects in welds.

Ultrasonic Testing (UT) Equipment – It is used to identify weld flaws by sending ultrasonic waves through the material.

6. Gas Supply Systems

Argon/Helium Gas Cylinders – Inert gases like argon or helium are used to shield the welding area from atmospheric contamination in TIG welding.

Shielding Gas Systems – MIG welding requires a shielding gas (a mix of argon and other gases) to protect the weld pool.

7. Welding Automation Equipment

Automated Welding Systems – Robotic or automated welding systems are used in aerospace manufacturing for high-volume production. This ensures consistent weld quality.

Welding Manipulators – These devices are used to position the welding torch or gun precisely in manual or automated welding processes.

8. Welding PPE

Welding Helmets – Helmets with auto-darkening features protect welders’ eyes from the intense light produced during welding.

Welding Gloves, Aprons, and Safety Gears – Personal protective equipment is essential for the safety of welding personnel.

Aerospace Welding Processes

Some common aerospace welding techniques include-

1. TIG Welding – GTAW uses a non-consumable tungsten electrode to create an arc between the electrode and the workpiece. A shielding gas (argon) is used to protect the weld from atmospheric contamination. TIG welding is widely used in aerospace for its precision and ability to produce high-quality welds. It is suitable for welding thin materials and critical components.

2. MIG Welding – GMAW employs a consumable wire electrode that is fed continuously through a welding gun. The wire melts and fuses with the workpiece, and a shielding gas protects the weld. MIG welding is suitable for both manual and automated processes. It is used for welding thicker sections and is commonly used for aerospace manufacturing.

3. Laser Welding – The welding type uses a focused laser beam to melt and fuse the materials. This high-precision process allows to welding of thin and intricate components. The welding type is used in aerospace for precision applications such as the welding of engine components and other critical parts.

4. Resistance Spot Welding – The process involves passing an electric current through the workpieces at specific points. This generates heat and causes the materials to melt and form a weld. The process is commonly used for joining thin metal sheets such as the fabrication of aircraft skins.

5. Electron Beam Welding – EBW uses a focused beam of high-velocity electrons to heat and weld materials. This is a high-energy, and precision welding process. The process is used in aerospace for joining materials with high melting points such as titanium alloys.

6. Friction Stir Welding – FSW is a solid-state welding process. It uses a rotating tool to join materials without melting them. It is often used for joining aluminum components. The welding types are employed in aerospace for components where traditional fusion welding may not work.

Aerospace Aluminum Welding

Some key aspects of aerospace aluminum welding include-

1. Aluminum Alloys – Common alloys such as 2024, 6061, and 7075 are frequently used in aerospace applications. Each alloy has specific characteristics. However, the choice depends on factors such as corrosion resistance, strength requirements, and the intended application.

2. TIG Welding – TIG welding is the most preferred method for welding aluminum in aerospace. It provides excellent control over the welding parameters. As a result, it produces high-quality, precise welds. AC (alternating current) TIG welding is used for aluminum. Because this helps to clean the oxide layer on the surface and ensures better fusion.

3. Joint Design – Butt joints and fillet welds are commonly employed in aerospace aluminum welding. Proper joint design is critical for achieving strong and reliable welds.

4. Preparation/Cleaning – Before starting, proper cleaning and preparation of the aluminum surfaces are essential. Aluminum forms an oxide layer quickly. Therefore, a thorough cleaning is necessary to remove any contaminants. For this, solvent cleaning, wire brushing, or chemical cleaning methods are often used to remove oxides.

5. Welding Filler Alloys – Match filler alloys to the composition of the base material. The common filler alloys for aerospace aluminum welding include 4043 and 5356.

6. Welding Techniques – The stringer bead technique is often used in aerospace welding techniques. This involves the creation of parallel beads along the length of the joint. Also, weaving techniques can be employed for wider joints to ensure proper penetration and fusion.

7. Heat Input Control – In thin aluminum components, controlling heat input is crucial to minimize distortion. Pulse welding or using lower amperage can help achieve this.

8. Post-Weld Treatment – Some aluminum alloys used in aerospace may undergo post-weld heat treatment or aging processes. This optimizes mechanical properties and relieves residual stresses.

9. Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) – X-ray and ultrasonic testing methods are commonly employed to inspect the quality of aluminum welds without causing damage to the components.

10. Quality Control Standards – Aerospace aluminum welding must adhere to specific welding standards. These procedures are often outlined by organizations such as the American Welding Society (AWS) and aerospace regulatory bodies.

Aerospace Welding Techniques

Some important aerospace welding techniques include-

1. Precision Welding – This involves meticulous control over welding parameters such as arc length, heat input, and travel speed. It ensures accurate and repeatable welds with minimal distortion. Precision welding is crucial in aerospace for components such as the fabrication of intricate structures or critical engine components.

2. Joint Design – The proper joint design is essential for achieving strong and reliable welds. Aerospace welding techniques often involve specific joint configurations such as fillet welds, butt joints, and T-joints. This is based on the structural requirements of the component. Joint design considerations are critical to ensure weld strength and durability.

3. Pulse Welding – This involves alternating between high and low currents during the welding process. The technique helps to control heat input and reduces the risk of overheating (especially welding thin materials). The welding types are used for welding thin sections and minimizing heat-affected zones.

4. Automated Welding – This process uses robotic systems to perform precise and repeatable welds. Automation reduces human error, improves consistency, and enhances overall efficiency. The welding type is employed in aerospace manufacturing for high-volume production requiring a high degree of accuracy.

5. Controlled Environment Welding – Welding in controlled environments such as clean rooms or inert gas chambers is common in aerospace. This prevents contamination and ensures the quality of the weld. Critical aerospace components in sensitive systems or from reactive materials may be welded in controlled environments.

6. Tack Welding – This involves creating small, and temporary welds to hold components in place before the final welding is performed. The process aids in proper alignment and reduces distortion during the final welding process. Aerospace welding techniques employ this to ensure accurate assembly and prevent misalignment.

7. Post-Weld Heat Treatment – In some cases, post-weld heat treatment may be employed to relieve residual stresses. This enhances the mechanical properties of the weld. The treatment is used in aerospace for certain applications where stress relief of mechanical properties is necessary.

8. Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) – Testing techniques such as ultrasonic testing, X-ray, and magnetic particle inspection are commonly employed. They assess the integrity of welds without causing damage to the components. NDT is a critical step in aerospace welding techniques to identify any defects or discontinuities.

Aerospace Welding Codes

Some key aerospace welding codes include-

1. AWS D17.1/D17.1M (Specification for Fusion Welding for Aerospace Applications) – This specification provides requirements for the welding of aerospace components. The code covers design, fabrication, inspection, materials, and testing, and is widely used in the aerospace industry. The standard is provided by the American Welding Society (AWS).

2. ASME Section IX (Welding and Brazing Qualifications) – The code provides guidelines for the qualification of welding and brazing procedures, as well as welders and brazers. This is widely used in the aerospace industry for ensuring the competency of personnel and procedures.

3. NADCAP AC7110 (Welding) – This provides for aerospace engineering, defense, and related industries. The code specifically addresses welding processes including welding procedure qualification and personnel certification.

4. EN 9100 Quality Management Systems (Requirements for Aviation, Space, and Defense Organizations – This is a European standard that defines the quality management system requirements for organizations involved in aerospace and defense. It includes specific requirements for welding processes and quality control.

5. ISO 3834-2 (Comprehensive Quality Requirements) – This provides a framework for quality requirements in fusion welding. Part 2 specifically addresses comprehensive quality requirements for aerospace welding, ensuring the integrity of welded structures.

6. FAA Advisory Circular AC 20-32 (Welding and Brazing Procedure Qualification) – This advisory circular guides the qualification of welding and brazing procedures for aircraft components. It is used in conjunction with other standards to meet FAA requirements. This is provided by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA).

7. MIL-STD-2219 (Fusion Welding for Aerospace Applications) – This military standard provides requirements for fusion welding of aluminum-based structures in aerospace applications. The code includes specifications for materials, joint design, and welding procedures.

8. SAE AMS-W-6858 (Welding, Wire Direct Tension, and Compression Test Procedure) – This standard provides procedures for the testing of welded joints in aerospace applications. It covers direct tension and compression testing of welds. The code is given by the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE).

Aerospace Welding Standard AWS D17.1

The AWS D17.1/D17.1M is a widely recognized aerospace welding standard. The key aspects of AWS D17.1 include-

1. Scope

Aerospace Applications – AWS D17.1 is specifically tailored to cover the welding requirements for aerospace applications, including the fabrication and repair of components used in aircraft and spacecraft.

2. Content

Materials – The standard reveals the selection and use of materials for aerospace welding, including filler metals, base metals, and welding consumables.

Welding Processes – The code covers various welding processes applicable to aerospace, including GTAW, GMAW, electron beam welding, resistance welding, and others.

Welding Procedure Specifications (WPS) – The standard guides for creating and qualifying welding procedure specifications. Also, ensures that welding processes are well-defined and meet the required standards.

Welding Personnel – This code includes requirements for the qualification and certification of welding personnel involved in aerospace welding techniques/activities.

Inspection/Testing – The standard outlines inspection and testing requirements, including non-destructive testing (NDT) methods (radiography, ultrasonic, visual inspection).

Documentation – The code emphasizes the importance of comprehensive documentation. This includes the welder performance qualification records, preparation of welding procedure qualification records (WPQR), and other essential documentation.

3. Quality Control

High Quality Standards – The code places a strong emphasis on maintaining high-quality standards throughout the welding process. This includes the reliability and integrity of welded joints.

4. Certification

Compliance with Industry Standards – This is often required for aerospace manufacturers seeking certifications and approvals from aviation authorities such as the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) in the United States.

5. Applicability

Aircraft/Spacecraft Components – The standard applies to a wide range of aerospace components, including propulsion systems, airframes, and structural elements.

6. Updates/Revisions

Revision Process – Like others, AWS D17.1 also undergoes periodic revisions to incorporate updates based on industry feedback, technological advancements, and changes in regulations. Here, users must consult the latest edition (AWS D17.1) for the most up-to-date information.

Aerospace Welding Courses

Some common aerospace welding courses include-

1. Basic Welding Course – This covers the fundamentals of welding, including basic welding processes, safety procedures, and hands-on training in welding techniques.

2. Aerospace Materials/Metallurgy Course – This provides an understanding of the materials commonly used in aerospace welding techniques, including titanium alloys, aluminum alloys, and other high-strength alloys. It covers metallurgical principles and their impact on welding.

3. Advanced Welding Program – It focuses on more advanced welding processes and techniques relevant to aerospace applications. This includes MIG welding, TIG welding, and specialized welding methods used in the industry.

4. WPS Course – It teaches the process of developing and qualifying Welding Procedure Specifications (WPS) specific to aerospace requirements. This includes topics like qualification testing, procedure development, and documentation.

5. NDT Course – This covers various non-destructive testing methods such as X-ray inspection, magnetic particle testing, ultrasonic testing, and dye penetrant testing. These are applied to aerospace welds.

6. Certification/Qualification Course – It focuses on the certification and qualification of welders and welding procedures. This is performed as per industry standards and regulatory requirements such as those outlined in AWS D17.1

7. Aerospace Welding Inspection Course – This covers the principles of welding inspection and quality control specific to aerospace. It includes dimensional inspection, visual inspection, and documentation requirements.

8. Aerospace Welding Technology Program – These degree or certificate programs cover a broader range of topics and may include hands-on training and internships.

9. Welding Safety Course – This emphasizes safety practices specific to aerospace welding environments. The topics may include personal protective equipment (PPE), ventilation, and hazard awareness.

10. Professional Development Course – This aims at experienced welders or professionals. These workshops provide in-depth knowledge of advanced aerospace welding techniques and technologies.

Aerospace Welding Schools

Some known aerospace welding institutions include-

  • Ferris State University (Big Rapids, Michigan)
  • Ohio State University (Columbus, Ohio)
  • Pennsylvania College of Technology (Penn College) – Williamsport, Pennsylvania
  • San Jacinto College (Pasadena, Texas)
  • South Seattle College (Seattle, Washington)
  • Southern Maine Community College (South Portland, Maine)
  • The Lincoln Electric Welding School (Cleveland, Ohio)
  • Tidewater Community College (Norfolk, Virginia)
  • Tulsa Welding School (Tulsa, Oklahoma/Jacksonville, Florida)
  • University of Tennessee (Knoxville, Tennessee)

Aerospace Welding Tests

Some common aerospace welding tests include-

1. Welder Qualification Test (WQT) – The test is conducted to qualify a welder for a specific welding procedure and material. It ensures that the welder can produce welds that meet the specified requirements. The WOT involves welding a test coupon according to a qualified welding procedure specification (WPS). The coupon is then subjected to various tests to evaluate the quality of the weld.

2. Procedure Qualification Test (PQT) – The test is performed to qualify a welding procedure. Further, it ensures that welds meet the specified standards. This is crucial in aerospace welding techniques to establish the parameters for reliable welds. During the test, a coupon is welded using the procedure to be qualified. This coupon is then subjected to various tests to assess the soundness of the weld.

3. Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) – The NDT methods (RT, UT, MT, PT) are commonly used in aerospace to inspect welds without causing damage. Test coupons or actual welds are examined using NDT methods to detect any internal or surface defects.

4. Impact Test – The test measures the toughness and resistance of a welded joint to low temperatures. The test specimens are subjected to impact forces at low temperatures, and the energy absorbed is measured to assess the weld’s ability to withstand impact.

5. Bend Test – This test assesses the ductility and soundness of a welded joint by subjecting it to a specified amount of bending. The welded test specimens are bent to a specific angle, and the weld is inspected for cracks or other defects.

6. Visual Inspection – This is a fundamental test to evaluate the appearance and surface quality of a weld. The welded joints are visually examined for discontinuities, such as porosity, cracks, or incomplete fusion.

7. Ultrasonic Testing (UT) – This test uses high-frequency sound waves to detect internal defects in welds. The UT is used to inspect the weld, and the results are interpreted to identify any flaws.

8. X-ray Inspection – A test is a form of radiographic testing used to examine the internal structure of welds. The welded joints are exposed to X-rays, and the resulting radiographic images are analyzed for defects.

9. Magnetic Particle Testing (MT) – The test is used to detect surface and near-surface defects in ferrous materials. A magnetic field is applied to the weld area, and magnetic particles are used to reveal any discontinuities.

10. Dye Penetrant Testing (PT) – The test is used to detect surface-breaking defects in welds. During the process, a dye penetrant is applied to the weld surface. After a specified dwell time, excess dye is removed. The dye penetrant reveals surface defects that are then inspected.

Aerospace Welding Certification

Some common aerospace welding certifications include-

1. Welder Certification – This ensures that an individual welder has the necessary skills and proficiency to produce welds meeting specific standards. Testing – Welders undergo practical welding tests, and are evaluated based on the quality and compliance of the welds with established criteria. Certification Codes – AWS D17.1 and other applicable codes specify the requirements for welder certification in aerospace welding.

2. WPQ Certification – This ensures a welding procedure meets the required standards. And, is capable of producing welds with the desired quality. Testing – A specific welding procedure is qualified by welding test coupons. The resulting welds are subjected to various tests including NDT to demonstrate compliance with standards. Certification Codes – AWS D17.1 and other applicable codes provide guidelines for the qualification of welding procedures.

3. Welding Inspector Certification – This is designed for individuals responsible for inspecting welds and ensuring compliance with specified standards. Testing may involve passing written examinations on inspection techniques, welding codes, and practical inspection exercises. Various organizations including the AWS and the International Code Council (ICC) offer these programs.

4. Welding Engineer Certification – This is for individuals with advanced knowledge of welding engineering principles and practices. Testing may require passing examinations covering welding design, welding metallurgy, and other engineering aspects related to welding. AWS and other engineering organizations may offer welding engineer certification programs.

5. Aerospace Quality System Certification – This verifies that a welding operation or facility complies with aerospace industry quality management standards. Testing involves an assessment of the quality management system. This ensures it meets the requirements outlined in standards such as AS9100 or ISO 9001. Accredited third-party certification bodies typically conduct this Certification.

6. NDT Certification – This is designed for individuals involved in performing NDT inspections of welds. Testing involves demonstrating proficiency in specific NDT methods (ultrasonic testing, magnetic particle testing, radiographic testing, or dye penetrant testing. The American Society for Nondestructive Testing (ASNT) often provides this certification.

Aerospace Welder Union

Some aerospace welder unions include-

1. International Association of Machinists and Aerospace Workers (IAMAW) – The union has a significant presence in the aerospace sector. It advocates for the rights of workers in aerospace, maintenance, manufacturing, and other related fields.

2. International Brotherhood of Boilermakers, Iron Ship Builders, Blacksmiths, Forgers, and Helpers (IBB) – This represents workers in the shipbuilding, construction, and manufacturing industries, including aerospace. It focuses on the skills of workers involved in metal-related trades, including welding.

3. United Steelworkers (USW) – This represents workers in various sectors, including aluminum, steel, and aerospace.

4. International Union, United Automobile, Aerospace and Agricultural Implement Workers of America (UAW) – This represents workers in the automotive industry, including aerospace manufacturing.

5. Sheet Metal, Air, Rail, and Transportation Workers (SMART) – This represents workers in air transportation, sheet metal, and related industries. The union includes members involved in welding, sheet metal work, and other skilled trades.

6. International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers (IBEW) – The union primarily focuses on electrical workers, yet has members in various sectors, including aerospace manufacturing. It represents workers in industries that require electrical expertise, such as aircraft assembly.

Aerospace Welding Companies

Some notable aerospace companies include-

1. Boeing (Chicago, Illinois) – It is a major aerospace company engaged in the design and manufacturing of defense systems, commercial airplanes, and space exploration technologies.

2. Lockheed Martin (Bethesda, Maryland) – It is a global aerospace and defense company involved in the development of advanced technology systems for various applications, including aeronautics and space exploration.

3. Northrop Grumman (Falls Church, Virginia) – It is a defense and aerospace company known for its work in cybersecurity, aerospace systems, and various defense technologies.

4. Raytheon Technologies (Waltham, Massachusetts) – It is a conglomerate that includes Pratt & Whitney, Collins Aerospace, and Raytheon Intelligence & Space. The company is involved in aerospace and defense technologies.

5. General Electric Aviation (Boston, Massachusetts) – It is a part of General Electric. The company is a leading manufacturer of aircraft engines and related technologies.

6. Honeywell Aerospace (Charlotte, North Carolina) – It is a division of Honeywell International Inc. The company is involved in the development of aerospace systems, avionics, and propulsion technologies.

7. SpaceX (Hawthorne, California) – It is a private aerospace manufacturer and space transportation company. The company is known for its ambitious projects such as the Falcon and Starship spacecraft.

8. Gulfstream Aerospace (Savannah, Georgia) – It is a subsidiary of General Dynamics and specializes in the design and manufacturing of business jet aircraft.

9. Blue Origin (Kent, Washington) – This is a private aerospace manufacturer and spaceflight services company. It works on projects related to space tourism and exploration.

10. Spirit AeroSystems (Wichita, Kansas) – It is a leading aerospace manufacturer. The company designs and manufactures aerostructures for commercial and defense aircraft.

Aerospace Welding Jobs

Some common aerospace welding job types include-

  • Aerospace Welder
  • Aerospace Welding Maintenance Technician
  • Certification/Compliance Specialist
  • Materials Engineer (Aerospace)
  • Quality Inspector (Aerospace Welding)
  • Welding Automation Specialist
  • Welding Consultant
  • Welding Engineer
  • Welding Instructor (Aerospace)
  • Welding Research and Development (R&D)
  • Welding Supervisor/Manager
  • Welding Technician

Aerospace Welding Salary

The salary trends in aerospace welding can vary based on factors such as education, experience, geographic location, employer type, and the type of aerospace welding techniques or work involved.

However, the approximate salary details for aerospace welders include.

Hourly Wage

  • Entry-Level – $18 to $25
  • Mid-Career – $25 and $35
  • Experienced – $35 or more

Monthly Salary

  • Entry-Level – $3,000 to $4,000
  • Mid-Career – $4,000 and $5,500
  • Experienced – $5,500 or more

Yearly Salary

  • Entry-Level – $36,000 to $50,000
  • Mid-Career – $50,000 to $70,000 or more
  • Experienced – $70,000, $80,000 or more

These figures are just estimates, and actual salaries can vary based on individual circumstances, and market trends.

How to Get into Aerospace Welding

Step-by-step guide for entering in aerospace welding field-

1. Educational Background – Applicants should complete their high school education with a focus on physics, mathematics, and mechanical or technical courses. Reading these subjects is beneficial for understanding welding principles and processes.

2. Explore Welding Programs – Look for welding programs (aerospace welding techniques, and processes) at technical schools, community colleges, or vocational schools. Some institutions may offer specialized courses or certifications in aerospace welding.

3. Enroll in Welding Courses – Enroll in a welding program that covers the fundamentals of welding, including GTAW, GMAW, and other relevant processes. Search for programs that emphasize aerospace applications and industry standards.

4. Pursue Welding Certifications – Obtain certifications from the American Welding Society, especially AWS D17.1. This is a specific standard for fusion welding in aerospace applications. AWS certifications demonstrate your proficiency in welding processes.

5. Gain Hands-on Experience – Seek internships with aerospace repair facilities, aerospace manufacturing companies, or welding contractors that specialize in aerospace projects. Hands-on experience is crucial for developing practical skills and understanding the challenges of aerospace welding techniques.

6. Acquire Specialized Skills – Learn advanced welding techniques and processes used in aerospace. Such as welding exotic materials like titanium and specialized alloys.

7. Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) – Familiarize with NDT methods including ultrasonic testing, X-ray inspection, magnetic particle testing, and dye penetrant testing.

8. Stay Updated with Industry Standards – Stay familiar with AWS D17.1 and other relevant industry standards. Following these standards is essential in aerospace welding for ensuring the quality of welded components.

9. Build a Strong Resume – While writing a resume, showcase your educational background, welding certifications, and any relevant coursework. Emphasize any hands-on experience gained through internships or apprenticeships in it.

10. Join Industry Network – Attend aerospace industry trade shows, events, and networking events. Connect with professionals in the field such as aerospace welders, engineers, and industry experts. Networking opens up new job opportunities and placements.

11. Apply for Aerospace Welding Jobs – Explore job opportunities with defense contractors, aerospace manufacturers, aerospace repair facilities, and other companies involved in aerospace welding techniques and procedures. Submit applications for entry-level aerospace welding positions.

12. Continue Professional Development – Consider pursuing advanced certifications or additional training in specialized areas of aerospace welding. This will enhance your skills and qualifications. Stay informed about advancements in aerospace welding technologies, materials, and processes.

Aerospace Welding Challenges and Solutions

Some common aerospace welding challenges and potential solutions include-

1. Material Compatibility

Challenge – Aerospace components are often made from diverse materials such as titanium, aluminum, and high-strength alloys. Each has its welding challenges.

Solution – Welders must be experienced in working with a variety of materials. Advanced welding techniques and specialized equipment may be required for specific alloys.

2. Tight Tolerances

Challenge – Aerospace structures demand tight tolerances to ensure precise fits and alignments. A little bit of deviation from specifications can compromise structural integrity.

Solution – Implement precision welding processes (GTAW), and utilizes robotic systems to achieve tight tolerances. Must perform a continuous inspection during welding and post-welding.

3. Heat-Affected Zone (HAZ)

Challenge – The heat generated during welding can lead to changes in material properties in the HAZ. It potentially affects the strength and corrosion resistance.

Solution – Employ low-heat welding techniques such as pulsed GTAW, and control carefully heat input. Post-weld heat treatments may be applied as needed.

4. Weld Inspection Challenges

Challenge – Ensuring weld quality in critical aerospace components requires a thorough inspection. And, this can be challenging for complex structures.

Solution – Utilize advanced NDT methods such as X-ray, ultrasonic testing, and eddy current testing. They can provide comprehensive inspections without compromising weld integrity.

5. Aluminum Welding Issues

Challenge – Though commonly used in aerospace, aluminum alloys can be sensitive to weld defects such as cracking and porosity.

Solution – Implement proper cleaning procedures, select appropriate filler materials, and use advanced welding techniques. Employing a high-frequency pulsing in GTAW can enhance the quality of aluminum welds.

6. Welding Dissimilar Materials

Challenge – Some aerospace applications require welding dissimilar materials. And, this can be challenging related to differing thermal expansion rates and metallurgical compatibility.

Solution – Employ specialized welding techniques such as friction stir welding, or explosion welding. They can be effective for joining dissimilar materials. Also, carefully select filler materials.

7. Complex Joint Configurations

Challenge – Aerospace structures often involve complex joint configurations. They require precise welding techniques.

Solution – Employ advanced welding technologies such as robotic welding systems. This can achieve consistency and precision in complex joint configurations. Welding fixtures and jigs are also implemented to maintain alignment during welding.

8. Regulatory Compliance

Challenge – Meeting stringent regulatory standards is essential as outlined in AWS D17.1 and aviation regulatory bodies for aerospace welding. Sometimes, they may be challenging.

Solution – Ensure welding processes and procedures comply with industry standards. Maintain documentation for certifications and inspections. Collaborate with regulatory authorities and adhere to industry guidelines.

9. High-Volume Production

Challenge – Maintaining consistent weld quality while meeting production targets can be challenging in high-volume production.

Solution – Utilize automated welding systems, robotics, and process monitoring. This can maintain quality in high-volume manufacturing.

10. Environmental Considerations

Challenge – Aerospace welding must be performed in controlled environments to prevent contamination.

Solution – Employ proper shielding gases, and ventilation systems, and maintain cleanliness in the welding area. Welding enclosures or chambers may be used for critical applications.

Future Trends in Aerospace Welding

Some key future trends in aerospace welding include-

1. Automated/Robotic Welding – The aerospace industry is likely to see increased adoption of automated and robotic welding systems. Robotic systems can provide consistency, precision, and efficiency in welding processes. The use of artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning may enhance robotic welding capabilities for complex structures.

2. Advanced Materials – The use of advanced materials such as composite materials and high-strength alloys is expected to increase in aerospace manufacturing. Welding techniques will need to adapt to the unique properties of these materials. Processes like laser welding and friction stir welding may gain prominence for specific applications.

3. Additive Manufacturing (3D Printing) – Additive manufacturing is gaining traction in aerospace due to producing complex components with reduced weight and enhanced design flexibility. Additive manufacturing techniques (including metal 3D printing) will influence the way certain aerospace components are produced. This may lead to changes in traditional welding methods for specific applications.

4. Industry 4.0 Integration – Industry 4.0 principles involve the integration of data analytics, digital technologies, and the Internet of Things (IoT). They will impact aerospace welding significantly. Smart welding systems with data analytics for quality control, real-time monitoring, and predictive maintenance capabilities will become more prevalent.

5. Laser Welding Advancements – Advancements in laser welding technologies including fiber lasers are anticipated. Laser welding provides high precision and speed. Continued improvements may lead to increased adoption for welding of thin materials in specific aerospace applications.

6. Machine Learning/AI for Quality Assurance – The use of artificial intelligence and machine learning algorithms for weld quality assurance and defect detection is expected to grow. These technologies can analyze data from various inspection methods and predict potential defects. They can improve overall quality control and reduce the risk of errors.

7. Hybrid Welding Processes – The integration of multiple welding processes such as laser welding combined with arc welding is gaining attention. Hybrid welding processes can offer the benefits of both techniques. They can combine the speed of laser welding with the penetration capability of arc welding.

8. Environmentally Friendly Processes – The aerospace industry is placing greater emphasis on sustainability and environmentally friendly practices. Welding processes that reduce emissions, energy consumption, and waste will be favored. For example, friction stir welding produces fewer fumes and requires less energy.

9. In-situ Monitoring/Control – Real-time monitoring of welding processes and in-situ control systems are expected to become more sophisticated. These technologies allow for immediate adjustments during welding. They ensure that the process meets quality standards. In-situ monitoring can contribute to the development of adaptive welding systems.

10. Welding in Space – Welding technologies for in-space construction and repair are gaining importance with the increasing focus on space exploration. Welding in microgravity presents unique challenges. Innovations in welding processes and equipment for space applications including on-orbit welding are likely to emerge.


Aerospace welding plays a crucial role in the structural integrity of aircraft and spacecraft. Aerospace vehicles may encounter various conditions during their operational life. Therefore, the performed welds must be able to withstand high stress, extreme temperature variations, and other challenging environmental conditions. For this, strict quality control measures are implemented to follow the high standards set by aerospace regulatory authorities. The future of aerospace welding is marked by materials innovation, technological advancements, and a focus on sustainability. Aerospace welders will need to hone their skills as the industry is embracing robotics, automation, and smart manufacturing. Staying up to date with these trends will be essential for professionals in the aerospace manufacturing field. Overall, aerospace welding is crucial to the creation of aerospace products.

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